If you’ve been following my research method for general nonfiction writers, you have already completed the exploratory phase, found your keywords and formulated some questions, and collected your sources.
Now it’s time to get to the heart of the research effort: taking notes from the sources you’ve found.
Many methods of note-taking exist. One of the most effective for professional writers is the Zettlekasten method. I have a link to a book on that topic below.
The methods I present here are simpler and will serve you well for one book-length work.
The first thing you need to decide is which of the following methods you are going to use to take your notes. They each have advantages and disadvantages. The important thing is to pick the one you feel comfortable with and stick to it!
My three methods are:
- Index Cards
- Digital apps
All three follow the same set of steps, the only difference is the physical format used to organize the notes.
Sheets of paper
You can either use 8.5″ X 11” notebook paper or you can use a 9″ X 12″ legal pad. Either is fine. I recommend you take the time to divide whatever sheets you use into 3 sections and rule them off with two horizontal marks on each page as shown at right. You will only use the front of each page. It is extremely important not to write on the back. It’s too easy to overlook information this way.
For this method, you will need:
- Paper (notebook paper or legal pads)
- Pens or pencils
- Ruler for marking off the sections
- Scissors to cut them apart when you’re done.
Index cards are my favorite method. I find it’s both neater and easier to keep things organized. The disadvantage is that you will need to have LOTS of index cards and you will need to have them handy whenever you are taking notes. You will also need to have a way to store them so they do not get misplaced. A shoebox works fine.
For this method, you will need:
- 4″ X 6” index cards ( one pack of 100)
- 3″ X 5” index cars (several packs, I’d get at least 500)
- Pens or pencils
- Rubber bands
- Storage box
Digitial note-taking app
Several of these are available for free. Some reference citation management apps are Zotero, Endnote, and Mendeley. Note-taking apps include Roam, Evernote, and Obsidian. I confess I have never used these, but people who do use them swear by them. I plan to try Mendeley soon and will write a post about my experiences. Youtube has videos that explain how to use all of them.
Apps work extremely well for people who will be getting a lot of their information from databases or open-source journals. They will help you keep all your sources handy (except for print book sources, of course).
Since most are cloud-based, you can use them across devices making it easy to work on the go. There is no need to have paper and pens handy when you find time to take notes.
To work with these, you will need:
- Time to research which app to use and how to use it, if you don’t already have one.
- Devices to use them on.
Five steps for note-taking
Once you have your note-taking method picked out, you will need to go through the following steps in order:
Step One: Make a rough outline or list of categories
Either write a very rough outline of the topics you want to cover (this can be changed later) or simply write down categories of information that you think you will need. The questions and keywords you collected earlier can help with this task.
For method one, place each keyword or category on a separate section of the paper. For method 2, place each on a separate index card, and for method 3, list them all on a digital document using the word processing software of your choice. Word is a good choice and most publishing professionals use it.
Step Two: Record Sources
For method 1, list your collected sources either on a sheet of paper or on index cards. One source for each card. For collecting your source citations, index cards are easier to work with. There is no need to be particular about the order at this point. With method two, place each source citation on a separate index card. With method 3, you need to be sure you are saving the citation for articles and not just the links.
Make sure you record every piece of citation information your style manual requires. The purpose of the citation is so your future reader could find the source for themselves if they want to. Details matter.
Step Three: Identifying mark for sources
For methods 1 and 2, give each source you have an identifying mark. You can number them if you like. I like to use letters so I don’t confuse them with page numbers when I’m tired. If I have more than 26 sources, I can start over with “AA, AB, AC” and so on. Once again, you can skip this step if you’re using an app.
Step Four: Prepping the note itself
If you are using method one (paper), you need to mark your papers into thirds with a pen. Also, draw a vertical line to the left of the center down the entire length of the paper. This will be where you place your source-identifying marks and the relevant page number.
If you are using method 2, index cards, you don’t need to do anything at this point except make sure you have plenty of 3″ X 5” note cards handy.
You will need to devise a system for tagging or keywording your notes with method 3. This shouldn’t be too difficult. Most of these apps have ways to identify the notes. But if you are creating your own digital notecards, be sure you have a way of tracking which source your information comes from, the page numbers, and the category or keyword the note belongs to.
Step Five: Taking the notes
When taking notes, you must be meticulous.
Plagiarism is a serious issue. Slipups can ruin your reputation.
Good intentions don’t count here. If you were in too big a hurry to put quotation marks around something you copied, and then later included it in your work with no quotation marks, you are still plagiarizing. Be scrupulous. Paraphrase information when you can. But if you copy any material (more than 4 words together) put quotation marks around them in your notes. This way, you won’t inadvertently copy someone’s words.
Copying words is not the only plagiarism concern. Not only is using someone else’s words without giving them credit plagiarizing, but you are also guilty if you use their ideas without giving them credit.
If what you’re using is common knowledge, there’s no need to credit anyone. But if an idea comes from someone else’s original research, you must give them credit. For more information check out Perdue OWL: Avoiding Plagiarism.
For long sources like books, you may not need to read the whole thing. You may only need to read a chapter or two. So before taking time to read an entire book, skim the table of contents to see which chapters will be most helpful and read those first. Also, check the indexes for your keywords or categories and read whatever you find there.
Finishing the notes
How will you know when you have enough notes? According to Robert I. Berkman in Find It Fast, when you keep running into the same information over and over, it’s a pretty good indicator you have done all the research you need to do.
If it seems that you will never get to the end of gathering new information, you may want to take a hard look at your topic. Perhaps you’re trying to cover too much. In that case, you may want to narrow your focus.
To narrow a topic, revisit your questions. At this point, you should have a pretty good idea of what the central question is for your work. At this point, you may need to tweak it a bit. For example, if you were trying to find out about every edible mushroom in the northeastern United States, it may be time to focus just on one or two. Or maybe you should narrow the focus to the medicinal uses of these fungi and forget about cooking with them.
As you take notes, your questions will develop a sharper focus. Try to stay flexible and add or subtract information as needed.
Take your time and enjoy compiling your notes. In the next post, we’ll discuss how to organize them so that you can begin writing a logical and coherent manuscript.
If you have any comments or questions, please feel free to contact me through the form below.
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